Casper 1995 Torrent French 2016 Torrent 2016 [TOP]
Behavioral responses to noise have been studied in both field and laboratory. The advantage of field studies is the observation of animals in their natural environment, but it can be challenging to observe individuals and determine exposure levels and responses with sufficient resolution and sample size. Field studies of large sample size include observations of changes in whale distribution in response to industrial noise and seismic surveys (see Richardson et al. 1995 for an overview), recordings of vocal behavior of whales exposed to military sonar (Fristrup et al. 2003; Miller et al. 2000), and a recent series of experiments exposing migrating humpback whales to 20, 440, and 3300-in3 seismic airgun arrays (Dunlop et al. 2016, 2017a, 2020). Many recent experimental field studies have considered potential effects of active sonar on cetaceans (Southall et al. 2016). Among the many broad results and conclusions are dose-response curves for exposure level and response probability in killer whales (Miller et al. 2014) and humpback whales (Dunlop et al. 2017b, 2018), behavioral state-dependent responses in blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus; Goldbogen et al. 2013) and humpback whales (Dunlop et al. 2017a, 2020), and changes in social behavior following noise exposure in pilot whales (Globicephala sp.; Visser et al. 2016) and humpback whales (Dunlop et al. 2020). For instance, Goldbogen et al. (2013) showed that deep-feeding blue whales are much more likely to change diving behavior and body orientation in response to noise than those in shallow-feeding or non-feeding states (Fig. 13.17). This finding has been replicated and expanded with individual blue whales, demonstrating the same context-dependency in response probability as well as potential dependence in response probability based on horizontal range from the sound source even for the same received levels (Southall et al. 2019a).
Casper 1995 Torrent French 2016 Torrent 2016